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Home - Technical Articles -Brief description of several anti-interference measures of economical CNC machine tools

Brief introduction of several anti-interference measures for economical CNC machine tools

Update Time: 2019-11-26 Hits: 125
Brief introduction of several anti-interference measures for economical CNC machine tools
Economical CNC machine tools use programming and programs to control the movement of the knife. In terms of power, the automatic lathe must be much higher than the CNC lathe. Therefore, the processing cost of the automatic lathe must be cheaper than that of the CNC lathe. Complex and demanding, automatic lathes may not be able to do it, only economical CNC machine tools to do it, but its processing costs will be higher than automatic lathes. For a product, we still use automatic lathes. For CNC processing, it is still important to look at the difficulty of the product.
Economical CNC machine anti-interference measures: These measures mainly include shielding, isolation, filtering, grounding and software processing.
① Shielding technology: Shielding is currently a very effective method. Shielding technology cuts off the transmission path of radiated electromagnetic noise.Common metal materials or magnetic materials are used to surround the area to be shielded, so that the fields inside and outside the shield are isolated from each other, and the electromagnetic radiation signal is cut to protect the shielded body from interference. Divided into electric field shielding, magnetic field shielding and electromagnetic shielding. In actual engineering applications, when the electric field is disturbed, the metal enclosures (servo drives, inverters, drives, switching power supplies, motors, etc.) of the strong electrical equipment in the system are reliably grounded to achieve active shielding; the enclosures of sensitive equipment such as intelligent error correction devices should be Reliable grounding to achieve passive shielding; the distance between strong electrical equipment and sensitive equipment should be as far as possible; high voltage and high current power lines and signal lines should be routed separately, and cables with shielding layers should be used. For magnetic field interference, high permeability Materials, such as Bomo-alloy, etc., and appropriately increase the wall thickness of the shield; use twisted pair and shielded wires to twist the signal line with the ground or current carrying return line in order to make the signal return to ground or current carrying back The distance between the lines is close; increase the distance between the lines so that the mutual inductance between the source of interference and the line being induced is as small as possible; sensitive equipment should be far away from the transformer of the source of strong electrical equipment.
② Isolation technology: Isolation is to isolate the interference source with isolation components to prevent interference from entering the equipment and ensure the normal operation of the EDM machine. Common isolation methods include photoelectric isolation, transformer isolation, and relay isolation.
(1) Photoelectric isolation: Photoelectric isolation can effectively suppress system noise and eliminate interference from ground loops. At the input and output of the intelligent error correction system, optocouplers are used as interfaces to isolate signals and noise; in motor drive control circuits, optocouplers are used to isolate control circuits from high-voltage circuits of the motor.
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(2) Transformer isolation is a widely used anti-interference component of power lines.Its basic function is to achieve electrical isolation between circuits and circuits, thereby solving the problem between equipment and equipment caused by ground loop current. Interference, at the same time the isolation transformer also plays a role in resisting common mode interference. Isolation transformer can play a very good role in suppressing the transient pulse train and lightning surge interference. For the transmission of AC signals, transformers are generally used to isolate the interference signals.
(3) Relay isolation, there is no electrical connection between the coils and contacts of the relay. Therefore, the coil of the relay can be used to receive electrical signals, and the contacts can be used to send and output signals, thereby avoiding the direct correlation between strong and weak signals, and achieving anti-interference isolation.
③ filter technology: filter technology is an effective measure to suppress interference. The numerical control lathe filter is an equivalent circuit composed of lumped parameters R, L, and C. It has functions of separating signals, suppressing interference, impedance transformation and impedance matching, and delaying signals. The use of filters can well filter harmful components in the equipment circuit and improve the reliability of the equipment. In economical CNC machine tools, in order to suppress high frequency interference to intelligent control devices. A low-pass filter can be used to filter out high-frequency components in the circuit to improve power quality. For various contacts or switches, the interference caused by contact jitter at the moment of closing or opening, and the suppression of the reverse potential generated by the inductive load when the power is cut off, can be eliminated by resistance-capacitance filtering. The ability of the magnetic field released is converted into the energy stored in the capacitor's electric field to reduce energy consumption. The use of LC filters will reduce the load impedance, which will increase the filtering effect, play the role of the filter, and reduce interference.
④ Grounding: Low-impedance connection between the circuit, CNC lathe equipment case, etc. and a common reference point (ground) as zero potential is called grounding. The grounding methods are: protective grounding, working grounding, and shielding grounding. The purpose of grounding is twofold: one is to reduce interference; the other is to personal safety. In order to reduce the occurrence of safety accidents, the safety grounding protective ground terminal and the chassis of the electrical equipment should be well overlapped, so as to be truly connected to the ground. In the electrical cabinet of economical CNC machine tools , the thickness of the grounding bar must not be less than 3mm (copper plate), and the grounding resistance connected to the ground should be less than 4 ohms; the protective ground wire in the system should be as thick and short as possible with yellow-green two-color wires To the ground bar, and avoid forming a loop; can reduce mutual electromagnetic interference with other equipment. In order to avoid the common ground impedance interference and ground loop interference and common mode current radiation interference of CNC machine tools during work, working grounding is very important. The working grounding methods include floating ground, single-point grounding, multi-point grounding, and hybrid grounding.
⑤ Software anti-interference: The method of identifying useful signals and interference signals by software and filtering out interference signals is called software filtering. The signal time, space, and properties are generally used to determine whether it is a useful signal or an interference signal. When the electromagnetic interference makes the program of the CNC system fly, the watchdog can help the system automatically resume normal operation.
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